A noun is a thing. But not all things are things. What I mean to say, not all things can be touched or seen.
Examples of seeable things:
clouds, the moon, my toe, cars, etc.
plans, a power, wind, an influence, a rhythm or beat, etc. These are all things.
A pronoun replaces a noun. We can't speak easily without pronouns. It would sound like this:
"Mandla took Mandla's keys and went to Mandla's car and Mandla unlocked the door of Mandla's car to look inside if Mandla's wallet was there."
Pronouns are used to replace the noun. There are several pronoun types, like subject pronouns, object pronouns, possessive pronouns, relative pronouns, etc. You have to master these fluently because they are used just about every time you speak or write.
"Mandla took his keys and went to his car and he unlocked the door of his car to look inside if his wallet was there."
The words to describe or modify the noun. If I was in charge, I would have called them adnouns. :-)
Example: 'crooked' to describe nose. The adjective (crooked) can be placed before the noun (nose) or after it.
My crooked nose hurts. OR My nose is crooked.
If you put it before the noun, we say it is in the attributive position. If it is after then noun, it is in the predicative position.
My crooked nose .... OR My nose is crooked.
In Afrikaans that matters, because some adjectives change a little depending if they are before or after the noun they modify.
Think of this example in English: The golden book lay on the table. The book of gold lay on the table.