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Plurals: Either add an E or an S to pluralize the noun.

Short and long vowels determine spelling when you pluralize a word. Pay close attention.

Note: word examples are a mix of real and fake words.

(A) Long and short vowels.

Here are some typical examples:
pal > palle
paal > pale
kot > kotte
koot > kote
sup > suppe
suup > supe
mes > messe
mees > mese


(B) End in Two Consonants, Vowels and Diphtongs

If these do not fall in the long/short vowel category just get an E addition, e.g.;
boek > boeke
suin > suine
oord > oorde
maart > maarte
kraai > kraaie
koei > koeie
meeu > meeue
meid > meide
kous > kouse
looi > looie
poei > poeie
saai > saaie


(C) S Ending

There is no clear-cut all encompassing rule for when an "S" ending is required. You will acquire a feel for these words. Often when a word ends in an R, L or M, the S is used. That is just a guide though.
komper > kompers
vinger > vingers
slinger > slingers
hanger > hangers
singer > singers
werker > werkers
kafee > kafees
trofee > trofees
slee > slees
meisie > meisies
tafel > tafels
amandel > amandels
appel > appels
katel > katels
skerm > skerms
arm > arms
derm > derms
alarm > alarms
film > films
stasie > stasies


(D) Suffix -heid >-hede

eenheid > eenhede
waarheid > waarhede
leegheid > leeghede
matigheid > matighede
mattigheid > mattighede
hartlikheid > hartlikhede
moeilikheid > moeilikhede


(E) The -ens ending.

nooi > nooiens
lewe > lewens
hawe > hawens
wa > waens
gevoel > gevoelens
jong > jongens
wese >wesens


(F) Exceptions

kind > kinderspad > paaie


(G) The -TE ending (All are English cognates with an -st ending.)

bees > beeste
fees > feeste
gees > geeste
toeris > toeriste
kas > kaste
teks > tekste
amp > ampte


(H) The -F ending when preceded by a short vowel

gelof > gelofte
skrif > skrifte
graf > grafte
skof > skofte


(I) The -F ending when preceded by a long vowel.

druif > druiwe
slaaf > slawe
staaf > stawe
gaaf > gawe


(J) The -G ending when preceded by a short vowel.

plig > pligte
vrug > vrugte
krag > kragte
nag > nagte
dag > dae
weg > weë


(K) The -G ending when preceded by a long vowel.

plaag > plaevlieg > vlieë