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... en TOE het die son opgekom.
... en DAN sal die son opkom.
... TOE die son opkom het ons opgestaan...
... WANNEER die son opkom sal ons opstaan...

01 - TOE / DAN

THEN = TOE (Past) & DAN (Pres. & Fut.)

Toe and Dan are both Verb First Conjunctions. (It means the verb or helping verb gets pulled to the front just after the conjunction.)

Focus on specific tasks. For example, tell me what you did yesterday.
I woke up en TOE took I a bath en TOE had I breakfast en TOE watch I a little TV and TOE go I to work.
You will notice that you can even use present tense verbs after "en toe" because the TOE flags the sentence as past tense, so the verb can remain present.

Context 1: Talk about what you are going to do today.

I will write a test EN DAN will I go to lunch EN DAN will I walk home and DAN will I take a nap...

Context 2: Describe a series of actions, e.g. explain a recipe, or give directions.

Recipe -- Measure two cups of flour en DAN add jy sugar EN DAN add jy a table spoon of salt, en DAN mix jy dit met die baking powder, en DAN pour jy water ...

Directions: You walk down main street for one km, and DAN turn jy left by the library, en DAN walk jy west for two blocks en DAN turn jy right en jy go straight till jy get to the railway tracks, en DAN cross jy die tracks en DAN will you see our shop on the left.

Ons het geëet en toe het ons TV gekyk. -- We ate sweets and then we watched TV.
Lees dit en dan kan jy dit kritiseer. -- Read it and then you can criticize it.
Ons sal werk en dan gaan ons speel. -- We'll work and then we're going to play.


WHEN = TOE (Past) & WANNEER (Pres. & Fut.)

Toe and Wanneer are both Verb-Last Conjunctions, which means they are the first word of a clause, and the verb (that is usually in the second position gets pushed out to the end of the clause. [See Third Group Conjunctions in the Grammar section.]


Hy het op my geskree toe ek sy kar gestamp het. -- He shouted at me when I crashed his car.
Vra hom wanneer hy wil gaan slaap. -- Ask him when he wants go and sleep.
Hy sal luister wanneer jy daar is. -- He will listen when you are there.

Note: To say "I know." > "Ek weet." WEET often takes a modifier like I know who to, or why, or when, or where, etc.

03 - AS / OF

IF (verb-last conjunction)

AS means "Provided That"
Example: Lees verder as jy verstaan. -- Read on if you understand.

OF means "Whether"
Example: Ek weet nie of jy verstaan nie. -- I do not know if you understand.

Whether indicates some kind of an option. Just add "or not" after the sentence.  There is always some possible choice involved. Provided that only sets a condition.  It's not a choice.

The two sentences below are two IF sentences. Identify which one is "provided that" and which one means "whether.

1. I will be glad if he can come.
2. I will ask him if he can come along.

The first one was "provided that" and the second one was "whether".


Ek moet besluit of ek op 'n sending wil gaan. -- I must decide if I want to go on a mission.
Sê vir my of hy Afrikaans praat. -- Tell me if he speaks Afrikaans.
Sê vir my as hy Afrikaans praat.  -- Tell me when he speaks Afrikaans.
As dit reën, gaan ek nie saam nie. -- If it rains, I will not go along.
Ons sal gelukkig wees as ons gehoorsaam is. -- We will be happy if we are obedient.

04 - WAT / WIE

WAT + People, Animals, Things

Verb-last Conjunction

Die studente wat leer, is wys. -- The students who study, are wise.
Die honde wat jy verkoop, is siek. -- The dogs that you are selling, are ill.

Preposition + WIE (People Only) and WIE SE... = "Whose..."

Wie se das is dit? -- Whose tie is this? Met wie het jy gepraat? -- With whom did you speak? Ek weet nie oor wie jy praat nie. -- I don't know about whom you are speaking. 

WAT, plus the clause that follows it, elaborates or describes the noun just before the clause. It works for people and things.

WHO = WAT   The new girl and her boyfriend WHO ALWAYS EATS HERE, are not coming tonight.

THAT=WAT   All the coins THAT HE GAVE YOU, will be given to the hungry little girl.

05 - DAT / WAT


a Verb-last Conjunction, meaning THAT.

Examples:Ek weet dat julle sal verstaan. -- I know that you will understand.Is dit waar dat hy dood is? -- Is it true that he is dead?


a Verb-last Conjunction, meaning WHAT, but wat could also be a Pronoun meaning "who",  "which"  or  "that".  Wat always ties some description to the noun.

Examples: Ja-nee, ek weet wat jy probeer sê. -- Yea sure, I know what you are trying to say. Hier is die man wat so grootbek is. -- Here is the guy that has such a loud mouth. Hy is iemand wat sê wat hy dink. -- He is someone who says what he thinks.



Dit kan gedoen word. -- That can be done. or It can be done.
Hierdie werk kan gedoen word. -- This work can be done.
Daardie werk kan gedoen word. -- That work can be done.
Daardie man kyk die hele tyd vir my. -- That man is looking at me the whole time.
Daardie skilderye is baie geld werd. -- Those paintings are worth a lot of money.
Hierdie brief beteken goeie nuus vir ons almal. -- This letter means good news for all of us.
Neem hierdie brief en gee dit vir daardie vrou. -- Take this letter and give it to that woman.


Combined Prime Example: Daardie man wat op die brug staan weet dat ons oor hom skinder. -- That man that is standing on the bridge knows that we are gossiping about him.

DAARDIE is only used with the "point-it-out" feeling. If the "thing" that you are referring to is real close to you, you will want to use HIERDIE (this).

DAT is always a Verb-last Conjunction.

Ek vra dat julle hierdie woord reg gebruik. -- I ask that you use this word correctly.
Ons weet dat hy tweetalig is. -- We know that he is bilingual.


You cannot say, "Ons weet dat."  The immediate response would be, "Dat wat?!" You should say "Ons weet dit."


In colloquial language the two words for because are used interchangeably, although some might argue that there are some areas where you would want to use WANT and not OMDAT.

1. OMDAT (because) is a Verb-last Conjunction.
2. WANT (because) is a Verb-second Conjunction.


Jasper slaap, want as hy nie rus kry nie, sal hy siek word.  -- Jasper sleeps, because if he does not get some rest, he will become ill.
Jasper slaap omdat hy moeg is. -- Jasper sleeps because he is tired.
Jasper werk, want hy weet dat dit hom gelukkig sal maak. -- Jasper werk because he knows it will make him happy.
Jasper werk omdat dit hom gelukkig maak. -- Jasper works because it makes him happy.